Provides a detailed examination of this famous military rifle on a part-by-part basis. Every variation in every part is documented and matched to the serial number range of its use. Thirty-one different variations of the rifle were developed over the 41 year course of its production and all are described and identified. Twelve different variations of the rifles were developed as sniper rifles beginning in 1907. All are discussed and described as are the telescopic sights used on each. The rifle was produced for civilian shooters by the Springfield national armory as well. Several variations of .30 caliber rifles were developed and sold through the Director, Civilian Marksmanship Program and the National Rifle Association for target shooting and hunting. A range of .22 caliber rimfire rifles was also developed for both low cost military and civilian marksmanship training in the 1920s and 1930s. Appendices provide additional information on serial numbers, production numbers, ammunition, inspection procedures and markings, lists of military and civilian inspectors and their markings, the National Match rifle and the rare and highly classified Pedersen device that converted this bolt action rifle to a semiautomatic rifle during World War I with never-before published original factory photos. A thorough bibliography completes the text. 456pp.