In his guide covering 1875-1945, Niles shows how the first truly affordable double barrel shotguns were adapted about 1875 from the excellent, but expensive, hammer and hammerless guns that had evolved in England and the U.S. By about 1890, these costly doubles were being replaced by cheaper English and Belgian Export guns whose low prices were consciously planned to attract cost conscious buyers. Pricing was primarily based on careful study of the market rather than on factory cost. This was a new phenomenon. Market planning had suddenly become as critical a part of the business plan as product design and efficient manufacturing. Promotion and Distribution strategies became equally important. Niles makes the point that the great sales success of Affordables in the U.S. was due to the intelligent balancing of these new considerations by the marketing geniuses who sold them.